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معارف اسلامی و فرهنگ و ارتباطات
معارف اسلامی و فرهنگ و ارتباطات

           

   در ادامه مطلب متن اصلی متونی که تا به حال ترجمه شده بود از فصل اول  کتاب "communication" را می توانید ببینید.

FUNDAMENTALS OF

COMMUNICATION

Earliest Efforts Adam and Eve

One of the earliest examples of interpersonal communication obeying Denis McQuail’s linear model, must be the one between Adam and Eve after chewing the forbidden fruit.

Juxtaposing a piece of conversational imagery from John Maria’s article “Battle of the Sexes”, one may effectively portray how the curtain raises for the first verbal dual between man and woman and how she stoops to conquer.

After eating the apple, the excited Adam, covering himself with fig leave, looks at Eve in anguish and says, “This is all your fault, I mean who would listen to a snake for Pete’s sake?”

Eve Reports

“Who is Pete? And anyway it takes two to a Tango, buster, you did your share of the chewing when it came to the apple.”

Adam, losing his ground, looks at Eve in all innocence and asks, “What is a Tango anyway?”

What happened further in the garden of Eden, how Adam, the first male of the homosapien species, got his beating is not our slice of apple.

Pre-Historic Communication

Two million years ago, man made his first appearance on earth, heralding the down of an era yet unborn — the era of Communication.

He produced sounds and made gestures to convey his feelings of joy, fear and sorrow.

                Time passed by. Man multiplied. His families expanded and coalesced into tribes. Soon, a need for communication arose.

Lighting a fire, he sent smoke signals to convey messages over long distances.

Meaning of Communication

The word “communication” is derived from the Latin word comniunis, which means common. In its application, it means a common ground of understanding. It is a process of exchange of facts, ideas, opinions and as a means that individuals or organisations share meaning and understanding with one another. In other words, it is the transmission and interacting of facts, ideas, opinions, feelings or attitudes. Communication is an interdisciplinary concept because theoretically, it is approached from various disciplines such as mathematics, accounting, psychology, ecology, linguistic, systems analysis, etymology, cybernetics, auditing etc.

Communication is a process involving the sorting, selecting and sending of symbols in such a way as to help the listener perceive and recreate in his own mind the meaning contained in the mind of the communicator. Communication involves the creation of meaning in the listener, the transfer of information and thousands of potential stimuli. Communication enables us to do important things. to grow, to learn to be aware of ourselves and to adjust to our environment.

To communicate with one another is a compulsive urge of human beings. There can be no mutual understanding without communication; mutual understanding is the core of human relations. Communication is like birth, death, breath and wanting to be loved as a part of life itself. Man is a communicating animal; he alone has the power to express in words. Sight, sound, touch, smell and taste are the modes of exchange of messages. Communication is the story of man and his efforts to communicate effectively. Civilization and culture progress to the extent communication has made these possible.

Definitions of Communication

American Society of Training Directors: “The interchange of thought or information to bring about mutual understanding and confidence or good human relation

Neumann and Summer: “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions, or emotions by two or more persons. Communication is also defined as intercourse by words. letters, symbols, or messages and as a way that one organ isa ion member shares meaning and understanding with another.”

Leland Brown: “Communication is the transmission and interchange of facts. ideas, feelings, or course of action.”

Allen Louis A: “Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.”

Ordway Tead: “Communicating is a composite of information given and received, of a learning experience in which certain attitudes, knowledge, and skills change, carving with them alterations of behavior, of listening effort by all involved, of a sympathetic fresh examination of issues by the communicator himself, of a sensitive interacting points of view, leading to a higher level of shared understanding and common intention.”

Bellows, Gilson and Odiorne: “Communication is defined as intercourse by words, letters, symbols or messages and a way that one organization member shares meaning and understanding with another.”

Charles E. Redfield: “Communication is the broad field of human interchange of facts and opinions and not the technologies of telephone, telegraph, radio and the like.”

-Theo Haiemann: “Communication is the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another. It is the process of imparting ideas and making oneself understood by others.”

M.T. Myers and G.E. Myers: “Communication refers to a special kind of patterning: patterning which is expressed in symbolic form. For communication to take place between or among people, two requirements must be met: (I) a symbolic system must be shared by the people involved (we need to speak the same language or jargon or dialects) and (2) the associations between the symbols and their referents must be shared.”

 Katz and Kahn: “Communication — the exchange of information and the transmission of meaning — is the very essence of a social system or an organization.”

Davis: “Process of passing information and understanding from one person to another....” “The only way that management can be achieved in an organization is through the process of communication.”

Chester Barnard: “In exhaustive theory of organization, communication would occupy a central place because the structure, extensiveness, and scope of organizations are almost entirely determined by communication techniques.”

Simon: “The question to be asked of any administrative process is: How does it influence the decisions of the individuals without communication, the answer must always be: It does not influence them at all.”

Edwin B. Flippo and Gary M. Munsinger: “... is the act of intercourse by words, letters, symbols or messages and is a way that one organization member shares meaning and understanding with another.”

Scope of Communication

The scope of communication is very wide and comprehensive. It is a subject of almost unlimited dimensions and is a interdisciplinary one. It is a two- way process involving both transmission as well as reception. It is a continuous process of exchange of facts, ideas, feelings, attitudes, opinions, figures, and interactions with others. In the process, it uses a set of symbols; symbols may be words, action, pictures, figures. Communication, however, does not mean downward movement of sending directions, orders, instructions etc. It is only one-way communication.

Two-way communication represents movement of communication upward. Internal communication flows in different directions — vertical, horizontal, diagonal, across the organization structure. Internal communication may be formal and informal. External communication is concerned with transmission of messages outside the organization with Government, its departments, customers, dealers, interoperate bodies, general public invest ors, etc. External communication promotes goodwill with the public. Internal communication helps in discharge of managerial functions like planning, direction, coordination, motivation etc.

The broad policies and objectives flow downward from top management to a lower level. Both written and oral or verbal media can be used to transmit messages. Written media consist of instructions, orders, letters. memos, house journals, posters, bulletins, boards, information racks, handbooks, manuals, annual reports, union publications, etc. Verbal media may consist of face-to-face conversation, lectures, conferences, meetings, interviews, counseling, public address system, telephone, grapevine, etc. Recently, a number of sophisticated communication technologies have emerged, both in oral and written communication on account of technological advancement.

Nature of Communication

Organizations are represented as communication systems. It is a formal process to accomplish the desired common goals. It is an exchange of information between individuals, groups, departments, etc. Every organisation has its own sub-systems and there is always interaction and interface between sub-systems to achieve goals. Communication transmits information and data to the sub-systems as well as to the total system. Management information system operates effectively through communication. It involves information gathering, storage, processing, monitoring.

It includes both present and past information. Communication is a tool and vital aspect of management process. As a matter of fact superior-subordinate relationship can exist only with effective and meaningful communication. There must be two parties to the process of communication. The communicator or sender or transmitter of message and the receiver or recipient or listener or reader is another party at the end. The nature of communication is exchange of message and interaction. Communication may be through written or verbal, action, figures and pictures.

The purpose of communication is to make others to understand and act upon it accordingly in the same sense. Communication is effective when the message is shared and understood with one another. There can be no communication if the information is not understood by the receiver in the same sense as it was intended to be by the communicator. It need not be necessary in effective communication that the receiver must agree or accept the information. It is sufficient if the information is understood even though information is rejected or disagreement exists.

 




طبقه بندی: زبان انگلیسی،
ارسال در تاریخ چهارشنبه 4 شهریور 1388 توسط حبیب الله مهربان
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